Allele Frequencies: Changing

John Stanton-Geddes;
25 October 2013

Evolutionary Processes

These forces will change allele frequencies in a population

  • Mutation
  • Migration
  • Non-random Mating
  • Genetic Drift
  • Natural Selection


  • source of all genetic variation
  • due to mistakes in DNA replication

What is the mutation rate for humans?


mutation rate

Conrad et al. (2011) doi:10.1038/ng.862


Individuals with specific genotypes move in or out of a population

Source-sink population dynamics